Cow’s Milk Substitutes for Children: Nutritional Aspects of Milk from Different Mammalian Species, Special Formula and Plant-Based Beverages.
Nutrients. 2019 Jul 27;11(8):
Authors: Verduci E, D’Elios S, Cerrato L, Comberiati P, Calvani M, Palazzo S, Martelli A, Landi M, Trikamjee T, Peroni DG
Cow’s milk and dairy are commonly consumed foods in the human diet and contribute to maintaining a healthy nutritional state, providing unique sources of energy, calcium, protein, and vitamins, especially during early childhood. Milk formula is usually made from cow’s milk and represents the first food introduced into an infant’s diet when breastfeeding is either not possible or insufficient to cover nutritional needs. Very recently, increased awareness of cow’s milk protein allergy and intolerance, and higher preference to vegan dietary habits have influenced parents towards frequently choosing cows’ milk substitutes for children, comprising other mammalian milk types and plant-based milk beverages. However, many of these milk alternatives do not necessarily address the nutritional requirements of infants and children. There is a strong need to promote awareness about qualitative and quantitative nutritional compositions of different milk formulas, in order to guide parents and medical providers selecting the best option for children. In this article, we sought to review the different compositions in terms of macronutrients and micronutrients of milk from different mammalian species, including special milk formulas indicated for cow’s milk allergy, and of plant-based milk alternatives.
PMID: 31357608 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]