Vegan-vegetarian low-protein supplemented diets in pregnant CKD patients: fifteen years of experience.

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Vegan-vegetarian low-protein supplemented diets in pregnant CKD patients: fifteen years of experience.

BMC Nephrol. 2016;17(1):132

Authors: Attini R, Leone F, Parisi S, Fassio F, Capizzi I, Loi V, Colla L, Rossetti M, Gerbino M, Maxia S, Alemanno MG, Minelli F, Piccoli E, Versino E, Biolcati M, Avagnina P, Pani A, Cabiddu G, Todros T, Piccoli GB

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy in women with advanced CKD becoming increasingly common. However, experience with low-protein diets in CKD patients in pregnancy is still limited. Aim of this study is to review the results obtained over the last 15?years with moderately restricted low-protein diets in pregnant CKD women (combining: CKD stages 3-5, proteinuria: nephrotic at any time, or?>?=1?g/24 at start or referral; nephrotic in previous pregnancy). CKD patients on unrestricted diets were employed for comparison.
METHODS:
STUDY PERIOD: January, 2000 to September, 2015: 36 on-diet pregnancies (31 singleton deliveries, 3 twin deliveries, 1 pregnancy termination, 1 miscarriage); 47 controls (42 singleton deliveries, 5 miscarriages). The diet is basically vegan; since occasional milk and yoghurt are allowed, we defined it vegan-vegetarian; protein intake (0.6-0.8?g/Kg/day), keto-acid supplementation, protein-unrestricted meals (1-3/week) are prescribed according to CKD stage and nutritional status. Statistical analysis was performed as implemented on SPSS.
RESULTS: Patients and controls were similar (p: ns) at baseline with regard to age (33 vs 33.5), referral week (7 vs 9), kidney function (CKD 3-5: 48.4?% vs 64.3?%); prevalence of hypertension (51.6?% vs 40.5?%) and proteinuria >3?g/24?h (16.1?% vs 12.2?%). There were more diabetic nephropathies in on-diet patients (on diet: 31.0?% vs controls 5.3?%; p 0.007 (Fisher)) while lupus nephropathies were non-significantly higher in controls (on diet: 10.3?% vs controls 23.7?%; p 0.28 (Fisher)). The incidence of preterm delivery was similar (<37?weeks: on-diet singletons 77.4?%; controls: 71.4?%). The incidence of other adverse pregnancy related outcomes was non-significantly lower in on-diet patients (early preterm delivery: on diet: 32.3?% vs controls 35.7?%; birth-weight?=?<1.500?g: on diet: 9.7?% vs controls 23.8?%). None of the singletons in the on-diet series died, while two perinatal deaths occurred among the controls (p?=?0.505). The incidence of small for gestational age (SGA <10th centile) and/or extremely preterm babies (<28th week) was significantly lower in singletons from on-diet mothers than in controls (on diet: 12.9?% vs controls: 33.3?%; p: 0.04 (Fisher)).
CONCLUSION: Moderate protein restriction in the context of a vegan-vegetarian supplemented diet is confirmed as a safe option in the management of pregnant CKD patients.

PMID: 27649693 [PubMed - in process]

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